Ability to think of verbal artistic images, directly connected with art thinking, it is possible to consider as the most general ability peculiar in the different degree but necessary for each person reading fiction. Feature of its age formation coincide with the characteristic of development of special abilities. The pupil is more senior, the higher to think of a level of development of its ability verbal artistic images which is realized at school mainly in the course of reader's perception.
Special talents can sometimes be shown already at early age. So, Mozart surprised with the musical endowments at the age of 3-4 years. Capable already at early age of children call child prodigies.
Single abilities are such abilities which by the nature are so simple that it is almost impossible to divide them further into smaller components. Those are the eye estimation accuracy, perception speed, direct memory size, concentration of attention, distinction of flowers, etc. These abilities are characterized by communication with some mental process or a state: with perception, memory, attention, imagination, thinking.
Abilities develop and shown in activity. It is possible to judge abilities the only way - to estimate results of activity. It must be kept in mind, however, that identical results can achieve at the price of unequal expenses of energy, work and efforts.
But also this, already system perception of the literary work bearing on itself analysis traces with application of knowledge, never happens implementation of in advance set program, it continues to remain subjective, reflecting thus specifics of art as subject of knowledge and revealing at the same time specific and typological features of perception.
Speaking about abilities, words endowments, talent and the genius are often used. Endowments are understood as hereditary aspect of abilities, their congenital nature. If we deal with especially outstanding abilities, we speak about talent. The most advanced stage of development of abilities is a genius.
The same person can have different abilities, but one of them can be more considerable, than others. On the other hand, at different people the same abilities, but differing among themselves on a level of development are observed.
Already by results of perception as cerebration can judge that difficult interaction external and internal which is shown in development of the school student as a result of training. For example, the analysis of direct perception of the literary work which yet is not studied in a class gives one picture, and perception of the same work after the school analysis which is carried out taking into account initial perception gives other picture. The perception goes deep, becomes more detailed, concrete, it "rises" if it is possible so to speak, on higher step, on new level, it gains new qualities.
Ability to think of verbal artistic images has synthetic character, and its formation cannot be so strictly operated and programmed, as, for example, formation of intellectual actions. Development of this ability demands at once entry into the sphere of art thinking with all its specifics, that is direct communication with fiction in variety of its childbirth, genres and styles.
The deep analysis of a problem of abilities was given by B.M.Teplov. It agrees the concept developed by it, the anatomo-physiological and functional features of the person creating the certain prerequisites for development of abilities called by inclinations can be congenital. Inclinations are very multiple-valued, they only prerequisites of development of abilities. The abilities developing on their basis are caused, but not predetermined by them. That they in itself still on anything are not directed is characteristic for inclinations. Inclinations influence, but not in a decisive way, on process of formation and development of abilities which are formed prizhiznenno in the course of activity and education. Inclinations cause: different ways of formation of abilities; influence the achievement level, speed of development.
The general criteria of development become concrete measuring instruments, without losing thus the basic value. In experimental "cuts" works of small forms (the story and lyrics) are used.